‘What is Research’ (notes from readings)

‘What is Research’ In Berger, A. A., Media and Communication Research Methods: An Introduction to Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (2011) London: Sage

https://criticalmediamethods.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/berger-what-is-research.pdf
We all do rasher in some way within our every day lives. If we want to buy a car, we look on line for cars that we like, that in our area and in our prise range. If you can afford to be picky, you might also research what type of car you want a diesel or a petrol, ABS braking or air conditioning. These are the sorts of things a average person might research when buying a car.
But academic research also know as ’scholarly research’ is different in a number of ways.
Its more systematic
More objective
More careful
More concerned about correctness and truthfulness than everyday research.

There are two main types or categories of research, quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative research, looks at statistics in order to come to a correlational judgment. For example statistically it was found that students placed in a highly stressful situation such as exams had a lower immune system effectiveness than in a non stressful situation. This shows correlated levels of stress with levels of immune efficiency. However it does not give you cause and effect, it simply states that there is a relationship between these two factors. We cannot only make the assumption that it is the stress which effects the immune system.

Qualitative research use a mixture of different techniques ignored to gain a understanding and then make a judgment about the culture and society they are researching. The reading give the example of historians who read ‘various kinds of documents’ in order to ’try to describe what happened and why it happened’. They take into consideration the economic, political and social structures at the time to build up an idea of what might of happened.

Cultural studies, often ‘base their analyses on the concepts, ideas and theories of philosophers, psychologists… with and more theoretical bent’. We have scholars who bas their analyses on concepts taken from people form the past. In a way this allows us to build upon the ideas of the past, however it could be argued that some theories are a little out dated for todays society. For example Laura Mulvey’s theory of ‘male gaze’ has been used by main people to explain the sexualization of women, however it could be seen as out dated at it came about during the late 20th century, it has been argued that women are now more empowered now and as a result the way women dress in the media can be simply a result in these new reformation of what it is meant to be feminine.
Nietzsche on Interpretation
Nietzsche wrote in ‘Will to Power (1987)’
“Against positivism, which halts at phenomena-There are only facts,-I would say: No, facts is precisely what there is not, only interpretations. We cannot establish any fact “in Itself”: perhaps it is folly to want to do such a thing” (p.481)
Nietzsche focused on “perspectivism”. He suggested that we can not know facts only perspectives on things.
Social scents often interpret the information they are given in order to reach a conclusion, however because it is based on interpretation there is some time more than one way to interpret the data.

Everyday research:
Intuitive
Common sense
Casual
Spur of the moment
Selective (often)
Magical thinking
Flawed thing at times
Focus is personal decisions

Scholarly research:
Theory based
Structured
Systematic
Planned
Objective
Scientific thinking
Logical to the extent possible
Focus is knowledge about reality

The Problem of certainty
We never get certainty from our research, even static’s are open to disagreement.
However when we make interpretations we still need to give a good reason for our interpretation. And offer support for our ideas. ’Thinking doesn’t make it so’.

Diachronic and Synchronic Research
All research is the matter of comparisons.
For example historical studies focus on ‘change over time’, while comparative studies study ‘change over distance’.

de Saussure (1966)
Suggested that concepts take their meaning differentially.
Used term ‘diachronic’ for studies which have historical focus, and ‘synchronic’ for research that is comparative in nature.

Axis of simultaneity = Comparison in space
Axis of successions = Change over time

Comparison between ‘control’ group and ‘experimental’ group. (indecent variable are used on the experimental group in order formulate a comparison)

‘The way the report is written plays and important part..on how your research is received’

Media And Communication
Intrapersonal- how we communicate with our selfs, thinking about how we will respond to situations.
Interpersonal- communication between our selfs and small number of people. There is interaction among all parties involved
Small Group- a person might be teaching a class or talking to a relatively small group. But it is large enough so that ordinary interpersonal communication cannot take place
Organizational- how organizations communicate internally and externally
Mass Media -The communication flows from a sender of messages to a large number of receivers of messages. For example producers and audience.

Different research methods can be used for each of these areas of communication.
For example interested in narrative carried by mass media, could use qualitative or interpretive techniques. But if interested in effect of the media, probably more likely to use quantitative techniques.

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